Kazakhstan is situated in Central Asia, deep in the Eurasian continent. Kazakhstan borders upon the following states: China- 1.460 km - long border; Kyrgyzstan - 980 km; Turkmenistan - 380 km; Uzbekistan - 2.300 km; the Russian Federation - 6.467 km. Total length of borders amounts to 12.187 km.
Capital is the city of Astana (since December 10, 1997) whose population is as large as 528,000 people.
Its territory is as large as 2,724,900 sq km (i.e. 1,049,150 sq miles). In terms of the area it is the second largest among the CIS states. It occupies the ninth place in the world according to its square after Russia, China, USA, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, India and Australia. In fact the territory of Kazakhstan exceeds that occupied by twelve countries of the European Union.
The territory of the Republic stretches on from the low reaches of the Volga in the West to the foothills of the Altai mountains in the East - for some 3,000 km ( a distance that spans two time zones), from West Siberian lowland in the North to the desert of Kyzylkum and the mountain range of Tien Shan in the South for some 2,000 km.
There are 8,500 big and small rivers in Kazakhstan. The length of seven largest rivers exceeds 1000 km. The largest ones are the Ural and the Emba flowing into the Caspian Sea, the Syrdaria falling into the Aral Sea while the Irtysh, the Ishim and the Tobol run all across the Republic to eventually reach the Arctic Ocean.
There are 48,000 big and small lakes in Kazakhstan. The largest among them are the Aral Sea, Balkhash, Zaisan, Alakol, Tenghiz and Seletenghiz. Besides Kazakhstan shares the larger portion of the nothern and half of the eastern littoral of the Caspian Sea - the largest ever sea on the planet. The length of the coast line of the Caspian Sea (its Kazakhstani portion) is 2,340 km. Steppes occupy some 26% of the territory of Kazakhstan. 167,000,000 ha account for deserts (44%) and semi-deserts (14%) with forests occupying 21,000,000 ha.
When speaking about the flora and fauna of the Republic, we have to mention 155 species of mammals, 480 and 150 species of birds and fish respectively and about 250 species of medicinal herbs. Worth noting is that such exceedingly rare plant as santonica wormwood grows nowhere else but in the South of Kazakhstan.
The northernmost point in Kazakhstan - 55'26'' NL - corresponds to the southern latitude of the central part of the East-European plain and to the southern part of the British Isles (the latitude of Moscow). As to the southernmost point - 40'56'' NL - it corresponds to latitudes of Transcaucasis and Mediterranean countries of Southern Europe (the latitude of Madrid, Istanbul and Baku).
Yet remoteness of the country from oceans and vastness of its territory determine climatic conditions.
The climate of the country is sharply continental. Average temperature in January varies within - 19° - - 4° C while average July temperature fluctuates within + 19° - + 26° C. The lowest temperature in winter may go down to - 45° C with the highest one in summer + 30° C.
numbers some 15,074,2 thousands people (01.01.2005). Population density is as high as 5,5 people per 1 sq km. The ethnic composition consists of Kazakhs, Russians, Ukrainians, Germans, Koreans, Poles, Greeks, Tatars, Turks and many other nationalities. The main religions are: Muslim 47%, Russian Orthodox 44%, Protestant 2%, other 7%.
State symbols – The National Emblem, The National Flag
The law-effective Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 24.01.1996 has established the following national symbols:
National Flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan
National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
National Anthem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
National Flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a a piece of right-angled cloth of sky-blue colour with a picture
of a golden sun with its 32 rays in the centre, under them - a soaring steppe eagle. Flagstaff has vertical line with national ornament.The picture of sun, its rays, eagle and ornament are of golden colour. Width/length ratio of the flag is 1:2.
National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a picture of a shanyrak ( the cupola of a yurta) on a blue background, from which uyks (body bracket) like sun rays are being radiated in framing of wings of mythical horses. At the bottom of the emblem there is an inscription “Kazakhstan”. In colour picture the National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan are of two colours: golden and blue-and-sky-blue.
National holidays are as follows:
Day of the Republic (October,25) and Independence Day (December,16).
Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives. Independence in 1991 caused many of these newcomers to emigrate. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states combined, largely due to the country's vast natural resources and a recent history of political stability. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; achieving a sustainable economic growth; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's competitiveness; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.
Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 80%. Kazakh is the official language. This notwithstanding, in State institutions and local administration bodies along with the Kazakh language they speak Russian quite officially
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write, total population: 98.4%, male: 99.1%, female: 97.7% (1999 est.).
Kazakhstan is a constitutional republic. The president is the head of state. The president also is the commander in chief of the armed forces and may veto legislation that has been passed by the Parliament. The prime minister chairs the Cabinet of Ministers and serves as Kazakhstan's head of government. Kazakhstan has a bicameral Parliament, made up of the lower house (the Majilis) and upper house (the Senate).
Head of State – Nursultan Nazarbaev;
Head of Government – Karim Massimov.
Political parties of Kazakhstan. There are 8 officially registered political parties in Kazakhstan .
The Democratic Party of Kazakhstan “Ak zhol”
Democratic party of Kazakhstan.
The Communist party of Kazakhstan.
Communist national party of Kazakhstan.
Peasants social democratic party “Aul” (village).
Republican political party “Nur Otan”
“Ruhaniyat” party (spirituality).
Since 1992, Kazakhstan has actively pursued a programme of economic reform designed to establish a free market economy through privatisation of state enterprises and deregulation and today is generally considered to be more advanced in this respect than most other countries of the CIS. Kazakhstan remains one of the most successful reformers in the CIS, though its record is less strong when compared with more advanced transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe, and it has the strongest banking system in Central Asia and CIS.
Kazakhstan’s current leaders are laying the foundation for its integration into the global economy.
At independence in 1991, Kazakhstan had a promising resource base, from its sizable hydrocarbon reserves to its well-educated workforce. More importantly, though, it had the wisdom to move quickly away from the failed policies of the past. Kazakhstan’s leadership embarked on a new – transformational – course. In a little over ten years, Kazakhstan implemented a series of broad-based reforms that brought Kazakhstan from planned to market economy.
Kazakhstan undertook a process of demonopolization, privatization, debt restructuring, price liberalization, customs reform, and tax restructuring. Kazakhstan established a securities and exchange commission, liberalized trade, enacted laws on investment, established a new government procurement process, and reformed the banking system.
These impressive reforms took place against a background of internal political stability and gradual advance of democratic reform and a civil society. We are heartened to see that economic reform is continuing. Introducing diversity into Kazakhstan’s economy and freeing its human potential will require a huge national effort and, a renewed commitment to democratic and market reforms; and a key objective will be making this new economy open to outside investors.
Now country's investment potential is based on minerals and raw materials. Because their exploitation creates more than a half of the gross product, the quality and extent of deposits utilization and the reproduction of raw material reserves play decisive role in the present and future of Kazakhstan. For example, it is supposed that exploitation of the oil and gas field Kashagan which is one of largest fields in the world will make Kazakhstan one of the major producers of hydrocarbons not only on the regional, but also on the international level.
According to certain estimates, in the next 10 years the oil and gas sector of the country, particularly the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea, could attract between to 150-200 bln. USD. At the same time, Kazakhstan Government’s top priority is to encourage foreign direct investments into industry, agriculture, innovation, processing sectors in order to decrease the dependence of the Kazakhstan economy on energy and extracting sectors and to ensure continued growth of Kazakhstan’s economy.
The main goals of current structural policy are diversification and the strengthening of the non-oil sector. A number of development agencies and research centres (Development Institutions) have been established and the Government is looking at establishing techno and science parks to support the diversification of higher-value added industries.
This results in stable level of inflation (2002 – 6.6%, 2003 – 6.8%, 2004 – 6.7%, 2005E – 6.6%), a budget surplus, a firm currency, and a decreasing unemployment rate (2003 – 8.8%, 2004 – 8.4%). After posting moderate growth of 2.7% in 1999 as a whole, Kazakhstan's real gross domestic product (GDP) rose 9.6% in 2000, 13.2% (2001), easily the country's best year of economic performance since independence, 9% in 2002, 9.1% in 2003, 9.3 in 2004 and according to The Economist Intelligent Unit Kazakhstan is within Top 10 world fastest-growing economies in 2005.
The main driver behind Kazakhstan's economic growth has been foreign investment, mainly in the country's booming oil and natural gas industries. Since independence from Soviet rule in 1991, Kazakhstan has received more than 30 bln. USD of foreign direct investment – the highest per capita indicator in the former Eastern Bloc.
GDP (official exchange rate):
$52.6 billion (2006 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
8.5% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
$9,100 (2006 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$15.26 billion (2006 est.)
Monetary unit is tenge which is equal to 100 tyins. It was introduced on November 15, 1993.
Hard currency reserves of the National Bank and National Fund combined have reached US$ 14.4 bln. in 2004 (growth 66.3%). In 2004 the minimum wage in comparison with 2003 grew by 32% and average wages grew up by 21.4%.
Real income during this period grew by 13,5%.. Real growth of average monthly pension was 23.4% and there has been a significant increase in the social payments by the state. As US Under-Secretary of state for Economic Business and Agricultural Affairs Mr. Alan P. Larson said recently in his address to the American Chamber of Commerce in Kazakhstan: “Since its independence in 1991, Kazakhstan has been in the midst of a remarkable transition from communism to free markets. When completed, this transformation could bring Kazakhstan into the global marketplace in a way not seen since Central Asia dominated international trade routes hundreds of years ago…
Budget: revenues: $18.48 billion , expenditures: $18.09 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Aiming at attracting foreign direct investments Kazakhstan carries out the policy of ensuring stable macroeconomic environment and realises other measures which contribute to the improvement of investment climate in the country. The Government and the National Bank pursue the co ordinated policy directed to ensuring sustainable economic growth with low inflation rate and budget deficit not higher than it is envisaged.
The new Tax Code which has recently been adopted secures principles of liberal market economy and, therefore, creates favourable conditions for all businessmen. Beginning from the 1st of July 2001 the rate of the VAT was decreased from 20% to 16% and the social tax rate from 26% to 21%. For the purpose of meeting current requirements and those of future generations at the account of reserve resources the National Fund has been formed in Kazakhstan in 2000 accumulating external proceeds to the budget from the activity of Kazakh and foreign enterprises in the oil sector and aiming at stabilization of state budget revenues.
Natural resources :Kazakhstan is rich with commercial minerals. In terms of chromium, vanadium, bismuth and fluorine reserves Kazakhstan knows no second in the world while in resources of iron, chromite, lead, zink, tungsten, molybdenum, phosphorite, copper, potassium and cadmium the country holds one of the leading places.
On the territory of the country they have discovered nearly 160 deposits of oil and gas. Their reserves - known to this day - are approximately equal to present day resources of the whole of the Western Europe. These oil and gas fields contain about 20,000,000,000 barrels of oil and 700,000,000 ton of gas condensate. Sum total of the cost thereof is estimated in the region of USD 4 bln. The Tenghiz field only ranks as one of the largest deposits of the world.
Coal reserves in Kazakhstan reach 160,000,000,000 ton. The Republic numbers 10 coal fields of bituminous and brown coal, 155 deposits all in all.
Iron ore resources (containing 50-60% of pure iron) in the Republic surpass those of many a country in the world.
Kazakhstan is the second richest country in the world (after Russia) with regard to phosphorite reserves while phosphorite deposits of Zhanatas and Karatau in terms of thickness and quality are second to none in the world.
Kazakhstan holds one of the first places in the world as to the production of aluminium.
The Republic harbours uncommonly superb resources of copper ore. Zhezkazgan ore deposits are second largest in the world as to their potential.
The territory of Kazakhstan affords infinite resources of salt and construction materials.
The already prospected deposits serve a fine basis for the development of mining, coal-mining, metallurgy, oil-and-gas and chemical industries.
Kazakhstan's share in world output of commercial minerals and products of procession thereof (according to estimates of the Union Bank of Switzerland) in the days of the late USSR amounted to the following: Beryllium - 24%, Zink - 7%, Tantalum - 33%, Titanium - 26%, Chromite - 27%, Copper - 3%, Barite - 7%, Molybdenum - 3%, Lead - 7%, Bauxites - 1%, Uranium -14%, Manganese - 5%, Silver - 6%, Iron ore - 2%, Tungsten - 12%, Gold - 1%.
VII - IV centuries BC
East-Iranian tribes. Indoiranian ethnic and linguistic communities. Impact of tribes of Central Kazakhstan and Semirechje on East Kazakhstan. Basis of the antropological type: Europeoid one with a slight admixture of the Mongoloid one, predominant are features of Androne type with a transition to a type of Central Asian interfluve. East Kazakhstan. Monuments of the Zaisan basin are close to those of Semirechje. Culture of the Pavlodar Priirtyshje, closely related to that of the North of Kazakhstan, gravitates to the communities of West Siberia, to the culture of nomadic Ugor tribes. The names of the tribes failed to reach our times. Southern, steppe areas of East Kazakhstan are associated with the name of Saks. On the whole all of them are closely related tribes. An alliance of Sak tribes. Cattle-breeding. In VII-VI centuries BC - formalization of Scythian-and-Siberian animal style in fine arts.
1243 - mid-XV century
The Golden Horde. Prior to the 60s of the XIIIth century it was a part of the Mongol empire. The great Khan was the head of the Genghisides. He possessed a concentration of military, legislative and administrative power. The country was administered on the basis of written legal norms and legislative regulations - the so called "The Great Yasa" of Genghis Khan. Divan as the central executive body. Islam.
1465 - 1466
Kazakh Khanate. South-East Semirechje - the valley of rivers Chu and Talas. Cattle-breeding and farming. The Turkic (Kazakh) language. Islam. The cult of Tengri.
1558 - 1628
Yesim-Khan. The city of Turkestan as a centre of the Kazakh Khanate. Law-making activities.
1680 - 1718
Tauke-Khan. Claims of Jungar Khans to Kazakh territories. "Zhety Zhargy" - a code of laws.
Jungar invasion into Kazakhstan. Nomadic cattle-breeding. Mongol group of languages. Buddhism.
XVIII - first half
Russia's maintaining fortifications along Uralsk, of the Orenburg and Siberian lines.
1731: The Junior Juz Khan takes out Russia's citizenship. Forced expulsion of Kazakhs from the areas lying between the Volga and the Yaik (Ural) rivers. Farming, cattle-breeding, military service, various handicrafts. Christianity, Islam. Commencement of converting Kazakhstani population in Christian faith.
1783 - 1797
Uprising of Junior Juz Kazakhs headed by Srym Datov against Russian proliferation.
1836 - 1838
National-liberation movement of Kazakhs headed by Isatay Taimanov and Makhambet Utemisov.
1837 - 1847
National-liberation struggle headed by Kenesary Kasymov. Khan Kenesary Kasymov's proclaiming restoration of statehood.
Commencement of peasant migrants' settling on the territory of Kazakhstan.
Census of the population. Number of the population in the cities of Kazakhstan: Uralsk -36,446; Ust-Kamenogorsk - 8,721; Verny - 22,744; Pavlodar - 7,738; Semipalatinsk - 20,216; Perovsk (Ak-Mechet) - 5,058; Petropavlovsk - 19, 688; Kokshetau - 4,962; Jarkent - 16,094; Karkaralinsk - 4,451; Kustanay - 14,275; Zaisan - 4,402; Aulije-Ata - 11,722; Atbasar - 3,038; Akmolinsk - 9,688; Irghiz - 1,512; Gurjev - 9,322; Turgay - 896.
Late XIX - early XXth centuries
Massive peasants' migration to Kazakhstan from Russia.
November 1917 - March 1918
Establishment of Soviet power on the territory of Kazakhstan
August 26, 1920
Formation of the Autonomous Kyrghyz (Kazakh) Soviet Socialist Republic with the capital in Orenburg.
February 2, 1921
A decree of the Central Executive Committee of the Kyrghyz (Kazakh) ASSR on returning to Kazakh working people of lands withdrawn by tsarism in favour of big estates of nobility and landlords as well as for monastries and for the colonization fund.
March 14, 1921
A decree of the Central Executive Committee of the Turkestan Republic on renaming the city of Verny into Alma-Ata.
April 19, 1921
A decree of the Kyrghyz (Kazakh) ASSR on returning to Kazakh working people of lands withdrawn by tsarism in favour of Uralsk and Siberian Cossack troops.
October 27, 1924
By virtue of the Enactment of the USSR Central Executive Committee the Kyrghyz (Kazakh) part of Turkestan was annexed to the Kyrghyz (Kazakh) ASSR. Rearrangement of administrative division of the Kazakh ASSR had been accomplished by the beginning of 1925. The population increased by 1,468,000 people to make a total of 5,230,000 people. In 1926 Kazakhs constituted 61.3% of the whole population. Ak-Mechet - the capital of the Kazakh ASSR.
Transfer of the capital of the Kyrghyz (Kazakh) ASSR from Orenburg to Kzyl-Orda.
April 15-19, 1925
The Vth Congress of Soviets of the Kyrghyz (Kazakh) ASSR. Restoration of the historically correct name of the Kazakh people and renaming of the Kyrghyz ASSR into the Kazakh ASSR.
Transfer of the capital of the Kazakh ASSR from Kzyl-Orda to Alma-Ata.
1925 - 1932
Collectivization. Losses in the number of population made up nearly 2,000,000 people (Kazakhs), i.e. 49% of the initial amount.
1929 - 1933
Forced collectivization. Mass deaths caused by starvation and migration of the population beyond the confines of the Republic.
Transformation of the Kazakh ASSR into a Union Republic (Kazakh SSR).
Formation of the Kazakh SSR. On June 24, 1938 - election to the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR.
1937 - 1938
Massive political repressions.
The Great Patriotic war. In war years 1, 196, 164 Kazakhstanis fought among the rest of the combatting troops. Casualties amounted to almost 410,000 of the Kazakhstanis.
1937 - 1951
Deportation of whole nations to Kazakhstan: Koreans, Germans, Karachays, Chechens, Ingushes, Balkars, Kabardines, Kalmyks, Crimean Tatars, Meskhet Turks of Georgia, Ukrainians, Greeks, Georgians, etc.
Commencement of development of virgin and fallow lands.
Census of the population. Overall number of the population of the Republic - 9,295,000 people with Kazakhs making up 2,787,000 people (29.8%).
1979 - 1988
The Afghan war. 21,979 Kazakhstanis participated therein.
December developments. Almost 9,000 Kazakh youths had to leave Kazakhstan and move to other Republics.
Census of the population. The Republic numbers 16,465,000 people.
Declaration of state sovereignty of Kazakhstan.
Proclamation of state independence of Kazakhstan.
Adoption of the Constitution of sovereign Kazakhstan.
Adoption of the new Constitution at the all national referendum.
Elaboration of the Programme of Kazakhstan's strategic development up to 2030.
Since December 10, 1997
Akmola has become the new capital of the country.
|COOPERATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF ASIA COOPERATION DIALOGUE
Presently, ACD consists of 30 member-states. During the Second ACD Ministerial Meting held on June, 2003,
participants approved membership of Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Oman and Sri Lanka.
Since its early membership Kazakhstan is actively participating in the Dialogue. Kazakh representatives take part on regular basis in different ACD activities such as seminars, forf, meetings of working groups on different fields of cooperation.
Kazakhstan has become Co-Prime Mover of cooperation in energy, transport and agriculture spheres.
Annual ACD Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs should be mentioned as the most important event within the Dialogue. Kazakh delegations headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan H.E. Mr. Kassym-Jomart Tokaev took part in the 3rd Ministerial Meeting on June 21-22, 2004 in Qingdao (China) and the 4th Ministerial Meeting on April 5-6, 2005 in Islamabad (Pakistan).
On May 23-24, 2006 the 5th ACD Ministerial Meeting was held in Doha (Qatar). Delegation of Kazakhstan was headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan H.E. Mr. Kassym-Jomart Tokaev.
H.E. Mr. Kassym-Jomart Tokaev in his address expressed willingness of Kazakhstan to make possible contribution to sustainable development of Asian Continent and informed on concrete steps conducted by the Government of Kazakhstan for promotion of close cooperation in energy, transport and agricultural spheres.
Participants of the ACD Ministerial Meeting in Doha decided to conduct the next ACD Ministerial Meeting in the Republic of Korea in 2007. In accordance with the proposal of Kazakhstan delegation, the 7th Meeting will be held in Kazakhstan on 2008
Based on the decisions of the 5th ACD Ministerial Meeting in May, 2006 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan organized the ACD Seminar on Energy Cooperation
During the period of October 3-6, 2006 the ACD delegates took part in the 14th International Oil & Gas Exhibition «KIOGE-2006»
to get information on energy and hydrocarbon sector of Kazakhstan’s economy as well as with its potential of energy cooperation and ensuring the energy security in Asia
Kazakh side was represented in the framework of the mentioned Seminar by the representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the “KazMunaiGas” National Company as well as the Kazakhstan Institute on Strategy Researches and the Institute of Global Economy and Policy under the Fund of First President of RK.
Delegates discussed and exchanged views on following main topics during the Seminar:
- Energy Policy of Asian countries;
- Energy Transportation;
- Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources.
In general, the Seminar participants highly evaluated the significance and potential of the Caspian Region and, in particular, Kazakhstan in provision of the continent with energy resources and in strengthening of energy safety in Asia. In this regard the delegates recommended the upcoming Second Energy Forum and further ACD activities in energy sphere to study in details oil and gas transportation opportunities from the Caspian region to Asia.
Among the mentioned issues they discussed the problems of energy poverty and environmental security.
Based on the results of the discussions participants elaborated the Final Report which was submitted to the ACD Coordinator for distribution among the Member States.
Other regional groupings
1. Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA)
The idea of convening the CICA was initiated for the first time by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan H.E. Mr. Nursultan Nazarbayev at the 47th Session of the United Nations General Assembly on October 5th, 1992. The essence of this initiative consisted on an aspiration to resume earlier, albeit unsuccessful attempts to set up an efficient and universal structure on ensuring security in Asia, since on this continent, unlike the other regions, such a structure has not been formed at that moment.
I Ministerial Meeting.Was held on September 14th, 1999. Signing of the Declaration on the Principles Guiding Relations among the CICA Member States during this event became an important achievement from the moment of initiation by the President Nursultan Nazarbayev of the idea on establishing a multilateral mechanism for security and cooperation in Asia.
Basic principles, which shall guide relations of the CICA Member States: 1) sovereign equality, respect for the rights inherent in sovereignty; 2) refraining from the threat or use of force; 3) territorial integrity of the Member State; 4) peaceful settlement of disputes; 5) non-interference in internal affairs; 5) disarmament and arms control; 6) economic, social and cultural cooperation; 7) human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Thus, for the first time the legal basis for the Asian security system has been established which is to have practical measures and tools for ensuring stability in the region.
First Summit.Was held on June 4th, 2002. In this event the Presidents of Kazakhstan, Russia, China, Pakistan, Turkey, Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan, Prime Ministers of India and Azerbaijan, the authorized dignitaries from Iran, Egypt, Palestine and Israel, representatives of the Observer States and Organizations took part.
During the Summit the Declaration on Eliminating Terrorism and Promoting Dialogue among Civilizations was adopted.
Owing to successful holding of the Summit and signing of its constitutive document – the Almaty Act
CICA only 10 years after promotion of idea about its convocation could de jure become an open forum for dialogue with purpose to seek for mutually acceptable ways for resolving problems and conflicts.
2. Shanghai Cooperation Organization
The Shanghai Cooperation Organization is a permanent intergovernmental international organization proclaimed in Shanghai on June 15, 2001
by six countries – the People’s Republic of China, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Tajikistan and the Republic of Uzbekistan. It was established on the basis of the “Shanghai five” mechanism.
The main purposes of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization are: strengthening mutual trust and good-neighbourhood relations; promoting effective cooperation in political area, economy and trade, scientific-technical, cultural, and educational spheres as well as in energy, transportation, tourism, environment safeguarding fields; security and regional peace; striving towards creation of democratic, just, reasonable new international political and economic order.
On the international arena the SCO proceeding from “Shanghai spirit” adheres to the principles of mutual trust and benefit, equality, mutual consultations, respect for multifaceted cultures and aspiration to joint development and with regard to external relations the SCO is not a closed block and is not directed against any states and regions.
3. Organization of Security and Co-operation in Europe
The Republic of Kazakhstan became a member of the Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe in January 1992
. Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the OSCE opened in Vienna in 1995. The OSCE Center in the Republic of Kazakhstan opened in Almaty in January 1999. In April 2004 Mr I.Vikki was appointed as a Head of the OSCE Center in Almaty. In August 2005, First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan Mr R.Aliev was appointed as the Special Representative of the Republic of Kazakhstan on cooperation with the OSCE.
4. Collective Security Treaty Organization
The Republic of Kazakhstan consistently creates conditions to enhance stability and security in the country and in the region to counter new challenges and threats on the basis of international law and prevent emerging threats and eradicate their basic reasons.
One of the instruments of cooperation and coordination of activities for ensuring stability and security in the region is the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO).
The CSTO is an Eurasian regional organization that unites Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
5. Organization of Islamic Conference
Kazakhstan became a member of the Organization of Islamic Conference in 1995
. Cooperation with the Islamic world is one of the priorities of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy. Our country is considered by the Islamic World as the integral part of the Muslim community (Ummah).
6. Economical Cooperation Organization
The Republic Kazakhstan joined the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) in November 1992
. There are 10 countries in the Organization (including founders Iran, Pakistan and Turkey).
Main economic parameters of the activity of the Organization are set by ECO Summits held every two years. At the summits objective conditions of implementation of ECO policy and strategy are discussed. These meetings is a platform for opinion exchange on different issues of regional and global importance.
7. Commonwealth of Independent States
Development of multilateral relations with the CIS states is one of the main priorities of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy. This has repeatedly stated by President N.Nazarbayev.
The conception of integration of different speed to form a group of states with strong bonds of integration lays the basis of Kazakhstan’s approach to multilateral cooperation with the CIS states.
Kazakhstan invariably calls for open character of the activity of sub-regional associations within the Commonwealth and unification of aims and practical activities in course of CIS development.
The CIS is a unique organization that undertakes efforts on uniting post-Soviet countries.
8. Turkic Culture and Arts (TURKSOY)
The establishment of the international organization like Joint Authority for Turkic Culture and Arts (TURKSOY) is based on the idea of unification and valid parity of related cultures of Turkic-speaking nations, formation of a new cultural space within the frame-works of the Turkic world.
The basis of TURKSOY was found in 1992 at the First Meeting of Ministers of Culture of Turkic-speaking countries in Istanbul (Turkey). On July 12, 1993 in Almaty (Kazakhstan) six founder countries and permanent members of the organization - Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan, Turkey and Uzbekistan, signed the Agreement on establishment of the TURKSOY and Principles of its Functioning.
9. The International Fund of Saving Aral
The International Fund of Saving Aral (ISFА) was established on January, 4th, 1993 in Tashkent by the joint decision of heads of the CA states, with the purpose of financing and crediting of joint actions, programs and projects on rescue of Aral, ecological improvement of Aral sea littoral and basin of Aral sea considering the interests of all states of region. For practical implementation of the given problem the Interstate Coordination Water-Economic Commission (ICWC) and the Interstate Commission for Sustainable development (ICSD) have been created in the structure of ISFA.
10. “Central Asia + Japan” Dialogue
The "Central Asia + Japan" Dialogue was initiated by the Japanese side during the visit of Mr. Yoriko Kawaguchi, Minister of Foreign Affaires of Japan to the countries of the region in August, 2004 in order to enhance its presence in the Central Asia. The first ministerial meeting held in Astana (Kazakhstan) was followed by two sessions of the Senior Officials Meeting in Tashkent and Astana, respectively, in March, 2005 and February, 2006.
11. Eurasian Economic Community
The Eurasian Economic Community was created on October 10 2000 in Astana as an international economic organization according to the Treaty of establishment of the Eurasian economic community (EEC) signed by the heads of the member states of the Customs Union.
The concept of close and effective trade and economic cooperation with the aim to achieve goals and objectives determined by the Treaty on the Customs Union and the Common Economic Space of February 26, 1999 lays the foundation of the Treaty on Establishment of the EEC. Organizational and legal tools and monitoring of synchronous and adequate realization of international treaties signed are available to implement reached agreements
12. Common Economic Space
On September 19, 2003 in Yalta the heads of state of the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine signed the Agreement on creation of the Common Economic Space. Thus, four countries of the Commonwealth of Independent states (CIS) whose share is about 90% of the GDP of the CIS countries, made a decision to transform to a new level of integration.